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Author Topic: Fish diseases and pictures  (Read 43291 times)
*Lisa
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Fish diseases and pictures
« on: September 26, 2008, 12:13:07 PM »

Anchor Worm, also known as Lernea. The organisms you see attached to the fish's body are always female. There is a Y-shaped part of the body. This is a pair of egg cases, and may contain as many as 700 eggs. This parasite takes a while to mature, and the eggs can take up to 15 days to hatch in warm water. You can remove the organisms with tweezers and treatment of the spot with Iodine. You should also treat the pond with chemicals that contain organophosphates such as Anchors Away by Jungle. The attachment spot can heal within 30 days and may have an ulcer-like appearance.


* anchor worm.jpg (77.23 KB, 500x308 - viewed 1492 times.)
« Last Edit: September 26, 2008, 12:48:31 PM by *Lisa* » Logged

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Fin rot info
« Reply #1 on: September 26, 2008, 12:30:59 PM »

FIN ROT
Fin rot is caused by a parasitic bacteria and its is essential that it is treated promptly before the rot spreads to the body of the koi. In the inital stages fo the infection the inter-fin ray membrane becomes opaque and then starts to rot thus exposing the fin rays which then in turn begin to rot. The infection with continue to spread along the fins or tail until it reaches the body, at which in most cases the koi will most likely die. Fin rot is usally associated with fish that have had there fins badly handled or dirty water conditions (unclean or insufficient filtration).

If in the early stages of infection, it may be possible to treat the koi with one of the commerical anti-bacterial products that is avaliable on the market. However. Remember is is important to ensure that the water condition is OK before treating the pond with a antibacterial product, otherwise it will be a waste of time. If the rot is quite bad it may be possible to have a veterinarian cut away the rotted portions of the fin(s).


* fin rot.JPG (9.07 KB, 235x215 - viewed 1351 times.)
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Koi diseases and pictures
« Reply #2 on: September 26, 2008, 12:37:00 PM »

Dropsy

Raised scales (rather like a pine cone) and eyes standing out from the head.

Dropsy itself is not a disease, but rather a result of some other cause. Dropsy is a term given to the swelling that occurs internally in the fish. There are multiple possible causes. Sometimes it's not contageous, but sick fish should be isolated and treated since determining the actual cause may be impossible, and also because this will be easier on the fish.

The fish's body will become swelled with fluid it is unable to expel. Eventually the swelling will cause the scales to raise, giving the fish what is called the "pine-cone" appearance.

Diagnosis, One of these situations may be the cause:

Sudden swelling: A bacterial infection will cause internal bleeding.
Slow swelling: Growing tumors, or even parasites, in the fish may cause it to swell.
Slow swelling: Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Highly contageous!
Bacterial dropsy is infectious so treat with an anti bacterial remedy and if possible isolate affected Koi.


* dropsy.JPG (7.25 KB, 383x151 - viewed 1313 times.)
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Re: Fish diseases and pictures
« Reply #3 on: September 26, 2008, 12:57:59 PM »

Fungus
One of the most common fungal infections of Koi. The fungal spores will grow anywhere on the Koi, including the gills, initially germinating on dead tissue. Their threadlike hyphae release digestive juices which break down the tissue so the fungus can absorb it, as the fungus grows these juices start breaking down living tissue.

Fungus on the body appears as cotton wool like growths, it is hard to tell if a Koi has it in the gills, but if it hangs at the surface gulping for air it is likely.

Carp pox. A virus that produces solid waxy lumps on Koi. It will not kill Koi and is generally harmless, but can look unsightly. It is most often present in small Koi and in cold weather, clearing up disappearing when Koi grow and in the spring when water temperatures rise.
 




* fungus.jpg (47.83 KB, 300x225 - viewed 1436 times.)
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Re: Fish diseases and pictures
« Reply #4 on: September 26, 2008, 01:23:50 PM »

Symptoms Possible Cause Treatment

Cotton-like growths Fungus Medi-Koi, ProForm-C

Open wounds Bacterial Infection Melafix, Medi-Koi, Debride

Gasping at surface Oxygen deficiency More aeration, fewer fish

Bulging eyes Pop-eye, Bacterial Infection Melafix, Medi-Koi

Swollen body and scales protruding from body Dropsy, Bacterial Infection Melafix and Medi-Koi (mainly for the other fish
as usually it is too late for this fish)

Fins deteriorating Finrot, bacterial infection Melafix, Medi-Koi

Floats upside down, trouble swimming upright Swimbladder disorder Sinking food
"Flashing" through the water (sudden sideways
bursts) or jumping Parasite infection
Water toxin
 Salt level to .3%*, ProForm-C, Prazi Pond
Water Change
 
Colored fish turning white  Loss of pigment More sunlight

Swollen gills Flukes, parasite infection Salt level to .3%*, ProForm-C, Prazi Pond
 
Lying on pond bottom Flukes, parasite infection Salt level to .3%*, ProForm-C, Prazi Pond
 
Scales raised (on only part of the body) Parasite infection Salt level to .3%*, ProForm-C, Prazi Pond

Strong red veins in the fins Bacterial Infection
Parasite Infection
Ammonia or Nitrite poisoning
 Melafix, Medi-Koi
Salt level to .3%*
Water Change, Ammo-Lock
 
White Spots (pinhole size only) Ich, Parasite infection Salt level to .3%*, ProForm-C

*This level of salinity is not recommended with plants in the pond.

« Last Edit: September 26, 2008, 01:47:43 PM by *Lisa* » Logged

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Re: Fish diseases and pictures
« Reply #5 on: September 27, 2008, 12:08:32 AM »

Good job Lisa....This is a great forum and my favorite,but it needs a section on fish disease and parasites with pictures and descriptions.You have a good start on it but their are many other fish killers out there.If you can find something on sap infection one of the deadliest bacterial infections out there it would be a good addition to your list.The medi-koi medicated food is an excellent product I've used it in my ponds as well as other peoples and had great results.I've recommended it here several times.I get it at pondrx.com. It should be kept refrigerated.The praziquantel is the best treatment for flukes out there it is very hard to mix in water,For some reason it mixes well with proformc and in certain situations is a great double treatment.Keep up the good work    the skipper will have to make you the forum koi nurse.           
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Re: Fish diseases and pictures
« Reply #6 on: September 28, 2008, 08:20:44 AM »

This is great stuff Lisa and much needed.  Let me know when you're finished and I'll move it into the Nugget Section or you can ask The Skipper to "sticky" it.
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Re: Fish diseases and pictures
« Reply #7 on: September 29, 2008, 06:49:35 AM »

Very nice Lisa..   yeah this is a nugget for sure when it plays out. maybe others can find pics of different diseases as well.
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*Lisa
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Re: Fish diseases and pictures
« Reply #8 on: September 29, 2008, 10:30:40 AM »

Yes Koi keeper

feel free to add to this what ever diseases you can with pictures!  then it can be combined and made in to a section.
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Re: Fish diseases and pictures
« Reply #9 on: September 29, 2008, 11:56:23 AM »

Pictures and description of the deadly (khv) Koi Herpes Virus.This disease has wiped out entire koi farms,as well as many backyard koi ponds. http://www.koihealth.org/index.html
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*Lisa
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Re: Fish diseases and pictures
« Reply #10 on: September 29, 2008, 12:01:29 PM »

yes nasty disease

Introduction
Koi herpes virus (KHV), a viral disease highly contagious to fish, may cause significant morbidity (sickness or disease) and mortality in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) (Hedrick et al., 2000; OATA, 2001). This species is raised as a foodfish in many countries and has been selectively bred for the ornamental fish industry, where it is known as koi. Historically, the first outbreak of KHV was reported in 1998 and confirmed in 1999 in Israel. Since then, other cases have been confirmed in the United States, Europe and Asia (Hedrick et al., 2000; OATA, 2001; Anonymous, 2003). This information sheet is intended to inform veterinarians, biologists, culturists, and hobbyists about KHV.
What Is KHV?
KHV is currently classified as a DNA-virus belonging to the virus family Herpesviridae (i.e., a herpes virus). Although there has been some scientific discussion regarding the accuracy of this classification (Ronen et al., 2003), more recent work (Waltzek et al., 2004) shows strong evidence that KHV is indeed a herpesvirus, based on morphology and genetics. KHV disease has been diagnosed in koi and foodfish carp (Hedrick et al., 2000; OATA, 2001). Other related cyprinid species such as the common goldfish (Carassius auratus) and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) seem to be unaffected by KHV. As with other herpes viral infections, KHV is believed to remain in the infected fish for life, thus exposed or recovered fish should be considered as potential carriers of the virus (OATA, 2001).
KHV disease may cause 80-100% mortality in affected populations, and fish seem most susceptible at water temperatures of 72-81F (22-27C) (OATA, 2001). This viral disease affects fish of various ages, but cohabitation studies show that fry have a greater susceptibility than mature fish (Perelberg et al., 2003).

What Are the Signs of KHV?
Clinical signs of KHV are often non-specific. Onset of mortality may occur very rapidly in affected populations, with deaths starting within 24-48 hours after the onset of clinical signs. In experimental studies, 82% of fish exposed to the virus at a water temperature of 22C died within 15 days (Ronen et al., 2003). KHV infection may produce severe gill lesions and high mortality rates. In some cases, secondary bacterial and parasitic infections may be the most obvious problem, masking the damage caused by the primary viral infection. Behaviorally, affected fish often remain near the surface, swim lethargically, and may exhibit respiratory distress and uncoordinated swimming.
External signs of KHV may include gill mottling with red and white patches ( Figure 1 ) (similar to columnaris disease), bleeding gills, sunken eyes, pale patches or blisters on the skin. Microscopic examination of gill biopsies often reveals high numbers of bacteria and various parasites (Hedrick et al., 2000; OATA, 2001; Goodwin, 2003). Internal signs of KHV are inconsistent and non-specific, but they may include adhesions in the body cavity and a mottled appearance of internal organs (Hedrick et al., 2000; Goodwin, 2003).


Figure 1. Koi with KHV often show gill mottling with red and white patches. This mottling can appear similar to that seen in the gills of fish with columnaris disease. Photograph courtesy of Andy Goodwin, University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff.  SEE PICTURE BELOW HEAD AND GILL PIC

How Do Fish Get Infected with KHV?
The herpes virus that is responsible for KHV seems to spread in the same ways as most herpes viruses. Methods of transmission include direct contact with infected fish, with fluids from infected fish, and/or with water or mud from infected systems. Depending upon water temperature, fish that are exposed and susceptible may become infected and either develop the disease and die or become carriers of the virus (OATA, 2001). Goldfish and other fish in the carp family are not susceptible to KHV disease, and they do not appear to act as carriers of the virus (Perelberg et al., 2003; Ronen et al., 2003).
How Does Water Temperature Affect KHV Disease?
The virus appears to have an incubation period of 14 days following the introduction of infected fish to nave fish (fish that have not been exposed before) (OATA, 2001; Ronen et al., 2003). However, incubation may be longer, indicating that appropriate temperature and possibly a second trigger may be necessary for outbreaks to occur. Mortality related to KHV disease typically occurs between 64F and 81F (18-27C). Almost no mortalities occur below 64F, and there has been no reported occurrence of the disease at or above 86F (30C) (OATA, 2001; Goodwin, 2003).
How Do I Know if My Fish Have KHV?
Positive diagnosis of KHV requires the assistance of a fish health specialist and a fish disease diagnostic laboratory, and it may be accomplished by several methods. Direct methods involve procedures that look for actual virus or "pieces" of virus. Indirect methods involve procedures that do not look for the actual virus or parts of the virus, but instead look for an immune response (such as antibodies) by the fish.
Direct methods include: 1) virus isolation and identification (i.e., growing the virus) using koi fin (KF) cell lines and 2) PCR techniques (i.e., testing for the presence of KHV genes). For these direct, confirmatory, diagnostic tests, fish must be euthanized prior to sample collection; no non-lethal diagnostic test is available. However, in some cases, positive results may be obtained from submission of gill clips (although this may not be 100% accurate, either, and a full necropsy with submission of internal organs will yield more definitive results).

Indirect tests for KHV include ELISA testing, which looks for antibodies produced by the fish against the virus (Hedrick et al., 2000; OATA, 2001; Goodwin, 2003). ELISA testing can provide evidence that a fish was at one time exposed to and infected with KHV. Unfortunately, because indirect tests like the ELISA cannot determine if the fish is still infected with virus, it is not recommended as a primary diagnostic tool.

How Does KHV Differ from Other Viral Diseases?
It is important to differentiate KHV from other viruses that may cause disease in common carp and koi. The two other viral diseases recognized in carp are spring viremia of carp (SVC) and carp pox (CHV-1). These diseases have significantly different management and regulatory implications ( Table 1 ).
Spring viremia of carp disease is caused by an RNA virus, Rhabdovirus carpio, and has been reported in common carp (such as koi), grass carp, bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), Crucian carp (Carassius carassius), and common goldfish.

SVC outbreaks have occurred in Europe, the Middle East, Russia and the United States. Although SVC was not recognized as a viral disease until 1971 (Fijan), SVC-like diseases have been described in historical records of northern Europe for centuries. SVC may cause high morbidity and mortality (70%) in affected populations (see UF/IFAS factsheet VM142, Spring Viremia of Carp). SVC usually causes disease when water temperatures range between 41F (5C) and 64F (18C), unlike KHV, which typically causes outbreaks at higher water temperatures. SVC is listed as a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) (Office International des Epizooties, 2003). Thus, when a case of SVC has been confirmed in the United States by a USDA-approved laboratory, the diagnostician must promptly notify the state veterinarian and appropriate USDA-APHIS Veterinary Services officials.

Carp pox disease, or cyprinid herpesvirus (CHV-1), is caused by a different herpesvirus (Herpesvirus cyprini) that has a wide geographic distribution and affects common carp and koi. CHV typically causes smooth raised growths ("wart-like masses") on skin and fins of older fish, but it may be associated with high mortality in fish less than two months of age (Hedrick et al., 2000). Carp pox is not a reportable or notifiable disease in the United States. Water temperatures above 68F (20C) help reduce the skin and fin growths on older fish, but do not eliminate the virus from the fish. In mature fish, CHV-1 is typically a non-lethal, self-limiting disease.

Is There Treatment for KHV?
There is no known treatment for KHV. Antiviral drugs are not currently available to treat KHV or any other viral diseases of cultured fish. Studies have shown that fish may develop a natural resistance following viral exposure if water temperatures are increased to 86F (30C) (Ronen et al., 2003). However, this technique only marginally increases survival rates and artificially raising water temperatures in holding facilities above 80F may result in an increased occurrence of other more common bacterial and parasitic diseases. High water temperatures are not generally recommended for routine husbandry and management of koi and common carp. In addition, and more importantly, there is the concern that fish exposed to the virus previously or those exposed at high water temperatures may become carriers of the virus, even though they do not develop clinical signs. These carrier fish may spread this disease to new fish that have not been exposed before
Currently there is no vaccine against KHV. However, preliminary experimental vaccine studies using intraperitoneal injection of a live attenuated virus demonstrated that fish developed high antibody titers, were immune to the disease and survived a challenge (Ronen et al., 2003).

Because KHV outbreaks have caused large losses at koi and common carp facilities, and because there is still some concern over the possibility that survivors are carriers, anyone with koi and common carp that have been diagnosed with KHV should consider depopulation (eliminating the entire population) as a good option. This approach should be followed by disinfection of all materials and systems that have contacted the infected fish.

Viral particles may be active in water for at least four hours (Perelberg et al., 2003). However, common disinfection protocols (see below) may be used to eliminate the virus from water systems and equipment effectively (see UF/IFAS Fact Sheet VM-87 Sanitation Practices for Aquaculture Facilities). Prior to disinfection, equipment should be cleaned of debris or organic build-up, as these may reduce the effectiveness of the disinfectant. Chlorine solutions (i.e., household bleach) may be used to disinfect large equipment or systems without fish. The recommended protocol for chlorine is 200 ppm (200 mg/L) for one hour (Noga, 1996). Proper dosing of this depends upon the type of chlorine used. For household bleach, which is 5.25% sodium hypochlorite per liter, 35 milliliters per gallon of water will give 200 mg/L final concentration(Noga, 1996).

Quaternary ammonium chloride compounds may also be used for systems and equipment. Quaternary ammonium compounds are more gentle on nets than chlorine solutions. The recommended quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) treatment is 500 ppm (500 mg/L) for one hour (Noga, 1996). Proper dosing of QACs depends upon the type/concentration in the mixture used, because concentrations will vary depending upon the product used. Some QACs are 10% active ingredient, some are 50% active ingredient. For instance, Roccal D-Plus (Pharmacia & Upjohn Company, Pfizer) is approximately 24% active ingredient; therefore, a final treatment concentration of 500 mg/L would require about 7.9 mL of Roccal D-Plus per gallon of water. Rinse thoroughly after disinfection to eliminate residual disinfectant.

How Can KHV be Prevented?
Quarantine is the most dependable method to avoid introducing KHV to a nave population. To apply a quarantine effectively, all new fish must be kept in a separate tank or system, and ideally in a different building or area from the resident fish. Resident fish should be fed, handled, and maintained before the new fish. The quarantined fish require equipment such as nets, buckets, and siphon hoses that are used only for them. In addition, disinfectant foot baths and hand washes should be used by any personnel on entering and leaving the quarantine area. Fish should be quarantined for a minimum of 30 days.The best way to prevent KHV is to know your fish suppliers and have a good working relationship with them.
Prior to obtaining fish, ask if they have had any major unexplained losses. Monitoring and testing for KHV may be done by laboratory tests (as described above), so if suppliers have had major losses and have not had their fish checked by a fish disease diagnostic laboratory, KHV should be considered as one possible cause. These suppliers should be encouraged to have any remaining fish tested for KHV by a capable laboratory, and purchases from these suppliers may be problematic.

To minimize the spread of KHV disease, place koi coming from different suppliers into separate systems, and use very careful disinfection and sanitation between systems. This means making sure employees carefully wash and disinfect their hands and arms in between contact with different systems, having separate nets and other equipment, installing footbaths with disinfectant, and using other standard techniques.

Koi hobbyists are encouraged to promote the use of the English style of koi show, which keeps koi separated during the show and judging. Additionally, separate nets and equipment should be used by all participants for their own fish. The Japanese style of show, in which koi from different owners are placed together in the same tank, may result in spread of the disease among susceptible fish. Regardless of the show style, fish returning from shows should be quarantined (that is, separated from other koi) for an absolute minimum of three weeks prior to being placed back into the general population.

New koi should be quarantined and observed for three to four weeks prior to addition into existing populations of koi. At the end of this quarantine period and before placing all fish together, place several new koi with several koi from the established population in a separate area away from the rest of the established population and watch them for signs of disease. This "test" can help determine with a smaller number of fish whether placing the two populations together following quarantine could cause problems.



* koi herpes.JPG (32.66 KB, 563x422 - viewed 1553 times.)

* koi herpes 2.jpg (41.07 KB, 600x480 - viewed 1128 times.)
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Re: Fish diseases and pictures
« Reply #11 on: October 26, 2008, 05:07:30 PM »

Fantastic information Lisa and koi keeper.  Is this still ongoing or can I move it to the Nugget Section?
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Re: Fish diseases and pictures
« Reply #12 on: October 27, 2008, 05:07:53 AM »

I would suggest you "sticky" it in the koi section.
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Re: Fish diseases and pictures
« Reply #13 on: October 27, 2008, 10:07:05 AM »

It makes more sense to sticky it in the koi section, so I'm glad you changed your mind. 
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Re: Fish diseases and pictures
« Reply #14 on: October 27, 2008, 02:36:13 PM »

There are a few more. In time, I can add to this thread.
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